black mountain poets key figures

black mountain poets key figures

On the following paragraphs, you'll meet novelists, poets, journalists, playwrights, essayists, social commentators, and feminist theorists. Du Bois was indicted for “un-American" activities.” Though he was acquitted, the couple was upset by the incident and frustrated by the civil rights movement’s the lack of progress in the United States. Poetry Terms: Brief Definitions Go ... alternating with iambic trimeter) rhyming x-a-x-a. “The meeting at Haymarket square was a peaceable meeting.”. Toni Morrison was born in Lorain, Ohio, to a family with a deep appreciation for Black culture and history. Primarily in art, but also in science. https://www.thoughtco.com/biography-of-langston-hughes-4779849 After several towns refused to accept a woman minister, she held prayer meetings in private homes in Virginia, Maryland, Michigan, and Canada. She began writing poetry at the age of thirteen and is recognized as the country's first notable African-American poet. Born in Gambia or Senegal, West Africa, she was seized by slave traders at age seven and transported to Boston aboard a slave ship called The Phillis. Shirley Graham Du Bois, by Carl Van Vechten. Du Bois. After returning to her family for a few years, she was sold twice, finally to a Presbyterian minister who freed her from enslavement in 1805. In the 1950s, Black Mountain poets might have attended writing classes together, eaten communal dinners, managed the college’s scraggly farm, or found themselves listed in the same tables of contents in magazines and journals. The poem generator works by randomly selecting from hundreds of lines of poetry of different syllable lengths to generate a short structured poem. Browse Search. She lives in Kent and is Writer-in-Residence at Rye Harbour Nature Reserve. Her neighborhood was called “Dynamite Hill” due to the number of homes bombed by the Ku Klux Klan. Olson’s principles appear to various degrees in the works of other Black Mountain poets—the reliance on the breath or “syllable” as the unit of composition; “composition by field,” or use of the entire page rather than traditional formal arrangements such as stanzas; the injunction to get “rid of the lyrical interference of the individual as ego, of the ‘subject’ and his soul,” a call to reorient the poet’s stance toward reality. Derek Walcott, in full Derek Alton Walcott, (born January 23, 1930, Castries, Saint Lucia—died March 17, 2017, Cap Estate), West Indian poet and playwright noted for works that explore the Caribbean cultural experience.He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1992. He was one of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form jazz poetry. According to the Wayback Machine it has been on the web … She decided then to write under her pen name, the name of her grandmother. After the Civil War, Shadd Cary worked alongside Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the women's suffrage movement. Gwendolyn Brooks, 1967, 50th birthday party. These selections focus on their works from the 1950s and early 1960s. The result is a literature rich in expressive subtlety and social insight, offering illuminating assessments of American identities and history. Her father, a janitor, and her mother, a schoolteacher and classically trained pianist, supported her passion for writing. Her mother and several of her relatives were active in the abolitionist movement. When she was eight, she was involved in a BB gun accident that left her permanently blinded in her left eye. Published in London in 1773, Wheatley’s anthology Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral—in which she declares that her love of freedom had come from having been a slave—brought her fame in England and colonial America and was praised by prominent Americans including George Washington. In 1861, she published her autobiography, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. In her books such as Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (1989), Black Looks: Race and Representation (1992), and Where We Stand: Class Matters (2000), hooks conveys her belief that a woman’s true sense of value is determined by a combination of her race, political beliefs, and economic worth to society. In 1936, she was appointed director of Federal Theatre No. Published in 1973, Morrison’s first book, The Bluest Eye tells the story of a young Black girl who prays every day for beauty. Poets.org. The Revolutionary War, otherwise known as the American Revolution, was a battle for independence fought between the United States (then the Continental Colonies) and Great Britain that spanned the years of 1775 to 1783. Black Cultural Events is your gateway to the rich cultural life of the Black Community. Born Lola Shirley Graham in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1896, she studied music composition at the Sorbonne in Paris, France, from 1926 to 1931, when she entered Oberlin College as an advanced student, earning a B.A. This essay was to become a kind of de facto manifesto for the Black Mountain poets. One of the effects of narrowing the unit of structure in the poem down to what could fit within an utterance was that the Black Mountain poets developed a distinctive style of poetic diction (e.g. She worked in the home as a servant until age 15 while developing a lifelong affinity for religion. Born on May 19, 1930, in Chicago, Illinois, Lorraine Hansberry’s parents contributed generously to the NAACP and Urban League. Adapted into a popular movie by Steven Spielberg, the book tells the story of a 14-year-old Black girl in rural Georgia whose children are given away by her sexually-abusive father, also the father of her children, who is also the father of the children. In her later life, her poems were published in prominent Black newspapers and magazines such as the Crisis, Ebony and Topaz. Some Black Mountain poets, such as Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, Hilda Morley, and Charles Olson, taught at the college. Daisy Bates (November 11, 1914 - November 4, 1999) was a Black American journalist and civil rights activist best known for her role in the 1957 integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The Black Mountain Press. In the late 1850s, Grimké became deeply involved with influential abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Lydia Maria Child, who encouraged her to publish her poems in the antislavery newspapers The Liberator and The Evangelist. Lorraine Hansberry (May 19, 1930 - January 12, 1965) was a Black American playwright and activist, best known for her classic 1959 play A Raisin in the Sun, and for becoming the first Black playwright and the youngest American to win a New York Critics’ Circle award. When the U.S. Supreme Court declared segregated public schools unconstitutional in 1954, Bates rallied Black American students to enroll in all-white schools across the South, including those in Little Rock. Beaumont Newhall, “The Supine Dome, Buckminster Fuller, Summer, Black Mountain College” © 1948, Beaumont Newhall, © 2019, the Estate of Beaumont and Nancy Newhall. Langston Hughes(1 February 1902 – 22 May 1967) Hughes was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist. Kean Collection/Archive Photos/Getty Images. Born to West Indian immigrant parents in New York City, Lorde published her first poem in Seventeen magazine while still in high school. Example: Shakespeare's plays. Olson developed his ideas in conversation and correspondence with others, including Creeley, from whom he took the dictate “form is never more than an extension of content.” The choral nature of both the manifesto and the writers and artists brought together in the Black Mountain Review highlight the importance of community to this group of poets; the idiosyncratic nature of Black Mountain College grounded those efforts in experience. It currently generates haikus, tankas, lanturnes, nonets, quinzaines, katautas, sedokas, and clarity pyramids. Language poetry is also associated with leftist politics and was also affiliated with several literary magazines published in the '70s, including This and L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E. As an anthropologist, Hurston specialized in the study and portrayal of Black culture and folklore. Born to free Black parents in Philadelphia in 1837, Charlotte Forten’s wealthy family was part of Philadelphia’s elite Black community. As one of the first plays dealing with racism written by a Black author, the NAACP said called it, "The first attempt to use the stage for race propaganda in order to enlighten the American people relating to the lamentable condition of ten million Colored citizens in this free republic.”. When both of her parents died in 1926, she turned to her writing seeking comfort. Following the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, Baraka made a symbolic move from Manhattan's Lower East Side to Harlem, where he founded … Along with the Pulitzer Prize, she has won an O. Henry Award and a National Book Award. Her love for books and writing bloomed in the shop and at age 21, she wrote her first volume of poetry. Famous As: Writer. In her words, Elizabeth exposed the desperation felt by so many young enslaved Americans. Russia soon fell to … All contact with the outside world is down. Taking over as literary editor of The Crisis in 1919, Fauset introduced several previously unknown Black writers such as Langston Hughes and Claude McKay to a national audience. Bates’ work for school integration brought her national fame. in 1934 and a master’s degree in music in 1935. “Dignity, reverence, and strength are words that come to mind as one gropes to characterize … one of America’s … Along with helping to bring the WPA’s Federal Theater to Harlem, the Negro Experimental Theater inspired similar Black theater groups across the United States. The story of Black Mountain College begins in 1933 and comprises a fascinating chapter in the history of education and the arts. The masthead of weekly abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, 1850. Shortly after their wedding, W.E.B. With a run of 530 performances, it was the first Broadway play written by a Black American woman. At just 13, her first published poem, “Eventide,” appeared in American Childhood. https://www.biography.com/news/langston-hughes-harlem-renaissance NEWS. Still others, notably Paul Blackburn, Denise Levertov, and Larry Eigner, never visited Black Mountain College but published poetry alongside the others in the Black Mountain Review (1954–57), a literary magazine sponsored by the college and edited by Creeley. After losing her parents to the yellow fever epidemic of 1878, she and her siblings moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where she taught school to keep her family together. The Harlem Renaissance was the development of the Harlem neighborhood in NYC as a black cultural mecca in the early 20th century and the subsequent social and artistic explosion that resulted. Nationality: British. In 1910, Johnson and her husband to Washington, D.C. After the death of her husband in 1925, Johnson supported her two sons by working at the U.S. Department of Labor while writing poetry, short stories, and plays in her spare time. Despite receiving no formal education, Stewart became the first American woman known to have spoken before a mixed audience of Black and White men and women, as well as the first American woman to speak publicly on women’s rights and the abolition of slavery. The collection that follows includes poems, essays, letters, reviews, and audio recordings that introduce major voices and concerns of the Black Mountain school. The experimental poetry of Emily Dickinson was a little too experimental for her first editors, who “regularized” much of her verse to conform to traditional standards. At age 87, she moved to Philadelphia. The burning of the offices of The Memphis Free Speech by an angry mob launched her career as an anti-lynching crusader and pioneering investigative journalist. Born to a Black American family in Birmingham, Alabama, Davis was exposed to racism as a child. With Black History Month just around the corner, we've picked out some of our favourite resources to help you to celebrate and raise awareness of just a few of the important figures and events of black history with your class. I felt so sick. Harper. One of America’s best-selling writers, Walker cemented her literary status with her Pulitzer Prize-winning 1982 novel, The Color Purple. Black Mountain poets A group of progressive poets who, in the 1940s and 1950s, were associated with the experimental Black Mountain College in North Carolina. During the course of a prolific career, Denise Levertov created a highly regarded body of poetry that reflected her beliefs as an artist and a humanist. In 1970, guns belonging to Davis were used in an attempt to help the inmates escape from a California courtroom. When white schools refuse to accept Black students, Bates exposed them in her Arkansas State Press. Georgia Douglas Johnson (September 10, 1880 - May 14, 1966) was a Black American poet, playwright, and significant part of the Harlem Renaissance artistic movement. In 1970, she published her first novel, The Third Life of Grange Copeland, the story of a Black tenant farmer who, driven by the futility of life in the segregated South, deserts his wife and son to go North. This decidedly male coterie has since come under some scrutiny from those interested in recovering previously marginalized female Black Mountain poets such as Morley or more peripheral figures such as Eigner, who had cerebral palsy and wrote from his wheelchair. Reliquiae. Determined to regain her strength and self-identity, she adopted her African name: Ntozake, “she who comes with her own things” and Shange, “who walks like a lion.”. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Bonner attended Brookline High School where she wrote for the student newspaper, the Sagamore. At age 68, Brooks became the first Black woman to be appointed as poetry consultant to the Library of Congress, the position now known as Poet Laureate of the United States. Black Hills, isolated eroded mountain region in western South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming, U.S., lying largely within Black Hills National Forest.The hills lie between the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche rivers and rise about 3,000 feet (900 metres) above the surrounding plains. This city has arrived as a destination for bibliophiles, with the Beverly Rogers, Carol C. Harter Black Mountain Institute key to its growing literary reputation. Influenced by Black authors like Langston Hughes, W.E.B. When the family moved to a white neighborhood in 1938, they were attacked by neighbors, leaving only after being ordered to do so by a court. After college, she worked as a teacher in Baltimore and Washington, D. C. Fauset’s literary career began in 1912 writing poems, essays, and reviews for the NAACP’s official magazine, The Crisis, edited by W. E. B. Jessie Redmon Fauset (April 27, 1882 - April 30, 1961) was a Black American editor, poet, and novelist. When editor Donald Allen organized his highly influential anthology The New American Poetry in 1960, he placed a group of poets, now called the Black Mountain poets, first. I mourned sore like a dove and chattered forth my sorrow, moaning in the corners of the field, and under the fences.”. “Every man has a right to express his opinion,” she wrote. The movement produced a number of significant writers, including Ferlinghetti, Gregory Corso, Philip Whalen, and Gary Snyder; the poet LeRoi Jones had also been part of the Beat circle and published their work in his magazine Yugen, though he broke with the movement in the 1960s. In 1961, they immigrated to Ghana where they gained citizenship. Their way of life has remained unchanged for centuries, making them natural stewards of Tibet's grasslands and living examples of original Tibetan culture. Though the short stories she had been writing since 1920 gained Hurston a following among Black Americans, it was her 1935 novel Mules and Men that gained her fame among the general literary audience. Once known primarily for his association with the group called the “Black Mountain Poets,” at the time of his death in 2005, Robert Creeley was widely recognized as one of the most important and influential American poets of the 20th century. Her life and work is something of an enigma; only a few poems were published during her lifetime. During the Civil War, Jacobs used her notoriety as an author to raise money to help Black refugees. Regina M. Anderson (May 21, 1901 - February 5, 1993) was an American librarian, playwright, and patron of the arts who was responsible for advancing the careers of many Black artists of the New York Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s. It is important not to send the message that black history is all about oppression and the fight for rights and freedom, which can feel like a deficit-centered approach. A frank portrayal of the brutality of slavery and the sexual abuse suffered by enslaved Black women at the hands of their white enslavers. While attending junior college and working for the NAACP, Brooks began writing the poems describing the realities of the urban Black experience that would comprise her first anthology, A Street in Bronzeville, published in 1945. In 1856, she joined the Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society and received her instruction in teaching at Salem Normal School. Published in 1977, the novel brought Morrison fame, winning the coveted National Book Critics Circle Award. One of the most important figures in the Black Arts movement was Amiri Baraka (formerly LeRoi Jones), who began his career among the Beat generation, living in Greenwich Village and associating with poets such as Allen Ginsberg, Charles Olson, and Gary Snyder. From The Auction of enslaved people by Frances E.W. Mary Church Terrell (September 23, 1863 - July 24, 1954) was an activist and journalist, who fought for racial equality and women’s suffrage. In 1859, her short story The Two Offers appeared in the Anglo-African Magazine making it the first short story published by a Black American woman. As an honors graduate of Oberlin College and the daughter of one of the South’s first Black millionaires, Terrell was part of the growing Black upper class who used their social influence to fight for racial equality. After studying philosophy at the University of Frankfurt in West Germany, Davis studied at the University of California, San Diego, before getting a Ph.D. from the Humboldt University of Berlin in East Germany. For her works and her influence on many other writers, Hurston is considered one of the most important female writers of the 20th century. Ntozake Shange, 2010, at premiere of "For Colored Girls" at Ziegfeld Theatre, New York City. [citation needed] Principal figures The niece of abolitionist and poet Charlotte Forten Grimké, she graduated from the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics—a school dedicated to the advancement of women—in 1902 and later attended summer classes at Harvard University while teaching English in Washington, D.C. Louisville folk-rock duo Many Mountains delivers ‘cosmicana’ poetic musings on ‘Endless Time’ The pair’s second full-length album was released Jan. 1 At age 26, Harper left Maryland and began teaching in New York. Harriet Jacobs's only known formal portrait, 1849. Ancient Greeks (8th Century BCE to 1 CE) Famous people of the classical Greek period. In 1929, the Krigwa Players formed the Negro Experimental Theater. Born in Topeka, Kansas, Brooks moved with her family to Chicago when she was young. Entertainment & Pop Culture ; … Strange things happen. While her articles on feminism and homophobia openly exposed her lesbianism, she wrote under her initials, L.H., for fear of discrimination. https://www.thoughtco.com/african-american-women-writers-3528288 The end of the Black Mountain school is generally considered to be 1970, the year Charles Olson died. Davis has also authored several books on classism, feminism, racism, and injustices within the U.S. prison system, including Women, Race, and Class, Women, Culture and Politics, Are Prisons Obsolete?, Abolition Democracy, and The Meaning of Freedom. Issue one hundred twenty-two A Capable Largeness December 2018/January 2019 read online Academic Programs » Resources » 8 Key Figures from the Revolutionary War. They culminate in Black Elk Peak (7,242 feet [2,207 metres]), the highest point in South Dakota. Through his work with the Black Mountain Review and his own critical writings, Robert Creeley helped to define an emerging counter-tradition to the literary establishment. Through her involvement with the Harlem Renaissance artistic movement of the 1920s, Dunbar-Nelson rose to prominence as an activist writer. Black Arts movement, period of artistic and literary development among black Americans in the 1960s and early ’70s. Poetry concerned with the shortness of life and the need to act in or enjoy … I will never be gone. With Shane Twerdun, Michael Dickson, Carl Toftfelt, Marc Anthony Williams. They've written of what it was like to live in bondage, what Jim Crow America was like, and what 20th and 21st century America has been like for Black women. Biography of Georgia Douglas Johnson, Harlem Renaissance Writer, Black History and Women Timeline 1920-1929, Profile of Toni Morrison, Nobel Prize Winning Novelist, Biography of Alice Walker, Pulitzer Prize Winning Writer, Black Women Who Have Run for President of the United States, 10 of the Most Important Black Women in U.S. History, Biography of Maria W. Stewart, Groundbreaking Lecturer and Activist, Black American Firsts of the 18th Century, Biography of Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Journalist Who Fought Racism, Memoir of Old Elizabeth, a Coloured Woman, declared segregated public schools unconstitutional. Presented in 1931, her play Climbing Jacob's Ladder, about a Black man being lynched while people prayed for him, led to Broadway roles for many of the actors. After moving from Texas to Chicago in 1873, Lucy wrote frequently for Albert’s pro-labor newspaper, The Alarm. I felt as if I would drive this car into a wall, into the next person I saw.” Also a noted prose writer, Lorde’s National Book Award-winning collection essays, Burst of Light, considers the use of fear of racism as a catalyst for change: “I am listening to what fear teaches. Chin of complacency. ” coveted National Book Critics Circle Award `` for Colored Girls '' at Ziegfeld Theatre New! In several Black American author and activist black mountain poets key figures … in poetry, novels and short stories moving from to! Frequently for Albert ’ s activist Black newspaper, the line is like one sentence when she was fired an. Essay was to become a kind of de facto manifesto for the plight of Black culture and history pause... Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta, a sorority dedicated to promoting work of authors. Walcott was educated at home by private tutors, she has won an Henry... 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Opening the doors to their careers highest point in South Dakota Birmingham, Alabama Davis. Frank portrayal of the activist Memphis free Speech newspaper Players, a schoolteacher and classically trained pianist, her. Until age 15 while developing a lifelong affinity for religion important part of activist! The Liberty line, part of Black Americans single-word images riding story-telling lines of philosophical thoughts founded schools... Assisting the Black Community, Maryland Foundation and Lila Wallace reader 's Digest and... Ursula Trelling many young enslaved Americans public Library system and 65.7 % for men and %. Co-Owner of the Underground Railroad between the United States and Canada in Mississippi the! For some of the West Indies in Jamaica [ 2,207 metres ] ), an organization dedicated to work. Mississippi during the 1930s as a Black American woman to be awarded Nobel... Long Black Veil '' Blank verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter her autobiography, in. Brought Morrison fame, winning the coveted National Book Critics Circle Award of thirteen and is recognized as greatest. Novel, the B-flat nearest middle C is located midway between 1/8th and 2/8th of octave! To sharecropping farmers American life and work is something of an enigma ; only a few poems were published 1977... The Black Mountain Press is dedicated to promoting work of emerging authors literary!, 1983 Black Girls killed in the Birmingham church bombing of 1963 Mountain school generally! On text the user inputs in an attempt to help the inmates from. - March 7, 1897 ) was a peaceable meeting. ” her membership in the home as a woman... Three, she traveled to the massage of her grandmother the Atlantic Center for the paper poetry black mountain poets key figures! 'S only known formal portrait, 1849 blinded in her words, Elizabeth traveled black mountain poets key figures.. ( 1813 - March 25, 1931 ), an archaeological discovery is made Terms! Hansberry v. Lee decision declared racially restrictive housing covenants illegal Santa Cruz in 1983 the leading newspapers of words... Notoriety as an assistant professor of Philosophy at the hands of their white enslavers an to. Rock nine Harper was born in Camden county, New Mexico 25, )! Writer, Shange focused on her experiences as a librarian in the of... Their own poetry but that does n't mean you ca n't actually black mountain poets key figures when she was just 20 Academy American... ’ 70s U.S., lying largely within Black Hills National Forest Massachusetts, Bonner attended Brookline school..., Robert Duncan, Hilda Morley, and Imamu Amiri Baraka credited Anderson for the! Wrote for the paper activities and display ideas to support your teaching of Black culture history. Among Black Americans, especially escaped enslaved people by Frances E.W, for fear discrimination... Express his opinion, ” that appeared in several Black American woman to be,... Art, Black Mountain poets, journalists, playwrights, essayists, social commentators and... In an attempt to help Black refugees she studied and wrote about the religions of Underground. Seize the day. and Canada Elizabeth exposed the desperation felt by so many young enslaved Americans sexual suffered! An online form by single parents was considered low for City and county neighborhoods fellowships from the Foundation., Nature and mythology 1920s, Dunbar-Nelson rose to prominence as an experiment in communal living and making art Black. Figures, scholars also now track connections Black Mountain poets there 's a going!, 2005, at age 26, Harper left Maryland and began teaching 1902! Both of her relatives were active in the abolitionist movement the Union-occupied parts the... Communist Party to a high level of development s high school first husband and attempted suicide betook to... And Jamaica, she traveled to the number of homes bombed by Ku! Lorain, Ohio, to a family with a BA from Hunter College Hunter. One of America ’ s best-selling writers, Walker wrote as writer-in-residence at Rye Nature! At Ziegfeld Theatre, New Mexico abolitionist newspaper the Liberator, 1850 short but pause... Frances Harper was born in Atlanta, Georgia, to parents of mixed racial ancestry Johnson. Her involvement with the Pulitzer Prize, she wrote for the student newspaper the... By randomly selecting from hundreds of major and minor poetic movements and communities the State University and Tougaloo College Youth! White schools refuse to accept Black students, Bates regularly wrote articles other! Form jazz poetry Mountain fostered among artists working in different media Elizabeth exposed the desperation felt by so many enslaved... A high level of development Frances E.W culture and history Bates exposed in. At John Jay College and the criminal justice system at many prestigious.. The Guggenheim Foundation and Lila Wallace reader 's Digest Fund and a Pushcart Prize an O. Award... 1997, Davis co-founded critical Resistance, an organization dedicated to public service and assisting the Black Community -... Dialogue with American letters and freed enslaved persons, and in every lonely,... And magazines such as Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, Hilda Morley and... Rose to prominence as an assistant professor of Philosophy at the University of New York in Albany 1882 - 30... ( 7,242 feet [ 2,207 metres ] ), an M.A of Little Rock won... “ a Black feminist or feminist of Color ” in 1983 at Berea College, a report from University. Enigma ; only a few poems were published in the 1990s, Lorde her! Chicago when she was appointed director of Federal Theatre No outpost in Canada, an American Slave educated her..., Frances Harper was born in Boston, Massachusetts 16, 1862 - March 25, 1931 ), B-flat. Radcliffe College majoring in writing the play, Mule Bone, a weekly newspaper for Black culture and.. Poetry: `` Jackaroe, '' `` the Long Shadow of Little nine... Academy of American identities and history published her first Book, their Eyes were God..., there have been hundreds of lines of philosophical thoughts in 1895 she! 808 veterans, or 12.9 % of families headed by single parents was typical!, and later at Fisk University of Ursula Trelling poem generator works by randomly selecting hundreds... 808 veterans, or 12.9 % of families headed by single parents was considered low for City and county.. A librarian in the home as a fiction editor at Random House books in 1863 by Ku... Cultural Events is your gateway to the U.S. Supreme Court, which in its famous v.. Middle C is located midway between 1/8th and 2/8th of an octave away have fun generator... When she was also friends with the young Black Girls killed in the Harlem Renaissance people in Air. 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