princeton university chapel history

princeton university chapel history

The tympana above the north and south entrances depict the Annunciation and the Baptism of Christ, respectively. Martin Luther King Jr., delivered a sermon there in 1960. In 2011, the main campus was named by Travel+Leisure as one of the most beautiful in the United States.

In Princeton, you can see Princeton University Chapel, a gothic town church. [2] It was built by Matthews Construction Company,[7] which worked on several projects on Princeton's campus. Cram, a convert to High Church Episcopalianism from Unitarianism,[6] also lent support to this aim. Princeton University Chapel: Beautiful Chapel with History - See 161 traveler reviews, 105 candid photos, and great deals for Princeton, NJ, at Tripadvisor. The epic windows reinforce the idea of a "Catholic north" and a "Protestant south": Catholics wrote the north epics and Protestants the south epics. [2] The university's president, John Grier Hibben, also had a stake in the project: student hostility toward Princeton's brand of mainline Presbyterianism was on the rise. [7] The exterior is constructed largely from Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim. [43], The northern transept is named for Henry Gurdon Marquand, the benefactor of the Marquand Chapel, which burned to the ground in 1920 and which the present chapel was built to replace. The chapel also hosts several annual special events. The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km ) in Princeton. [19][20], Following the restoration, the chapel was rededicated in an interfaith ceremony in which people belonging to Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Judaism gave prayers. The chapel was rededicated in an interfaith ceremony in 2002 following a major two-year restoration. Stillwell knew the building from its planning stages through its construction, dedication, and long use. [7] The latter was sculpted by Robert Baker. University President, John Grier Hibben, issued an appeal for funds to construct a chapel in an architectural style based on the fourteenth century English Gothic and appointed Ralph Adams Cram as the University’s supervising architect for this project. Among the stained glass are four "great windows", one facing each cardinal direction, and four "Christian epic" windows in the walls of the choir. The lectern is also oak and dates from the 1600s. organ, which was completely renovated in 1991. Two staircases on the east and west of the narthex lead to an upper gallery, which looks out upon the nave. [25] Running west to east, the main sanctuary consists of a narthex, a gallery, a nave, two transepts joined by a crossing, and an elevated choir;[38] it seats almost 2,000. [28] The chapel is connected on its eastern side to Dickinson Hall by the Rothschild arch, symbolizing a connection between religion and scholarship. Milliner ("The Princeton University Chapel", p. 5) writes that the space was once a broom closet. [23] The south aisle features five window bays, while the north has four;[42] where the easternmost bay would be is the entrance to a side chapel called the Blessed Sacrament Chapel. [45] An American flag flown by the USS Princeton hangs from the transept's north wall. [12] The construction cost about $2.3 million and was completed in 1928. Previously, she served for twelve years at the University of Chicago as Dean of Rockefeller Memorial Chapel and Senior Lecturer in the Divinity School, and as co-chair of the Board of the university’s Human Rights Program. Princeton University Chapel | Closed due to COVID-19 Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Tel: (609) 258-3047 | Fax: (609) 258-2686 "The Princeton University Chapel". Milliner, Matthew J. The gallery above the narthex is at the level of the triforium. When the College relocated to Princeton in 1756, a chapel was located in what would become the Faculty Room in Nassau Hall. Tel: (609) 258-3047  | Fax:  (609) 258-2686, © 2021 The Trustees of Princeton University, Today, enhanced by its elegant beauty and charm, the Chapel has been an attractive site for frequent weddings and memorial services for alumni, faculty, and many other friends of the University. Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Its magnificent Mander-Skinner. [2] Connick designed the windows in consultation with Friend, but they were made by others after the former's death. [7] It resembles the tympanum of the Royal Portal of Chartres Cathedral. (Cram was not a Yale alumnus and in fact did not attend college, so it is unclear what interest he might have had promoting Yale. [3] The location for the new chapel was chosen for two reasons: symbolically, the new chapel would rise from the ashes of the old one, and practically, it would locate the new chapel centrally as the campus expanded eastward. Each summer begins with a formal Opening Ceremony in the Princeton University Chapel where new scholars and families are welcomed to the community and returning scholars renew their commitments to their academic and collegiate goals. Irving and Casson, A. H. Davenport Company, "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History, 1746-1996. In reality, Ralph Adams Cram (supervising architect of Princeton University from 1907 to 1929) designed the Princeton University Chapel after a fire destroyed the original Marquand Chapel in … The Chapel is the religious and ceremonial center of Princeton University The soaring arches of the Princeton University Chapel have summoned countless people to come inside to find faith, peace, inspiration, challenge, and courage. Sound-absorbing tile is mounted on parts of the wall and vault. The insurance money from the Marquand Chapel was insufficient, and fundraising for the chapel competed with an ongoing general capital campaign for the university. The Orthodox Chapel of the Transfiguration, located on the campus of Princeton University, is a unique facility of the Orthodox Church in America's Diocese of New York and New Jersey. The chapel is cruciform and is built on the scale of a large parish church or a small cathedral. She holds a B.A. Therefore, our private excursions to Princeton are very popular and attract thousands of travelers annually. It had been used in a church near Avranches, France, for 200 years. [16] The project earned a New Jersey Historic Preservation Award in 2002,[17] and the stone work won the 2004 Tucker Award for Renovation and Restoration from Stone World magazine. [2] Other windows show Baruch Spinoza[69] and Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi;[29] both images were planned before the chapel was built.[2]. Today, enhanced by its elegant beauty and charm, the Chapel has been an attractive site for frequent weddings and memorial services for alumni, faculty, and many other friends of the University. College of New Jersey (1746–1896) Motto: Dei Sub Numine Viget On seal: Vet[us] Nov[um] Testamentum (Latin) Motto in English. Its French Renaissance style suggests that it was made during the reign of Henry II. Our History. The main sanctuary consists of a narthex, a gallery, a nave, two transepts joined by a crossing, and an elevated choir. The Princeton University Chapel is located on that university's main campus in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.It replaces an older chapel that burned down in 1920. Dear friends, the growing presence of COVID-19 in our communities has required many adaptations across Princeton's campus and around our country and world. [6] Hibben called replacing the Marquand Chapel "an immediate necessity";[10] nonetheless, the project encountered financial problems early on. The current Dean of the Chapel is Alison Boden, who is also Dean of Religious Life at Princeton. [4][5], Ralph Adams Cram, the university's supervising architect, designed and oversaw construction of the new chapel. The only precedent for a university chapel of this size was King's College Chapel, and only a small part of that chapel was used regularly. Ground was ultimately broken during Princeton's commencement ceremonies in June 1924, and in the following year Cram and Hibben laid the cornerstone. Four large stained glass windows are found in the main sanctuary. It replaces an older chapel that burned down in 1920. This arrangement lasted until 1847, when a separate building was constructed on the site of East Pyne. [50] According to Stillwell, the woodwork "represents an outstanding example of American craftsmanship. A devout Christian, Friend shared Hibben's goal of persuading Princeton students to choose lives of Christian observance and sought with the chapel's iconography, in Milliner's words, "to carefully dismantle materialist objections to Christian faith and to articulate Princeton's synthesis between Christian faith and modern thought. [38], Inscribed on the narthex wall facing the nave is "A Prayer for Princeton",[39] which as of 2008 was still used in services at the chapel. [53][54] It was designed by Ernest M. Skinner and installed in 1928. Chartered in 1746, Princeton is the fourth-oldest college in the United States. Now with new color photos throughout, The Chapel of Princeton University traces the history of the chapel and describes its architecture, sculpture, woodwork, and furnishings. …and University Chapel (1929) at Princeton University are among their finest achievements. Princeton University's Chapel is amazing! [21] Leading the ceremony, then-Dean of Religious Life Thomas Breidenthal said, "This edifice is unmistakably Christian, [but] this chapel is meant to belong to all of us. History; Schedule; People; Listen; The Chapel; Auditions; Contact Us; The Princeton University Chapel is currently closed due to COVID-19. * African Americans and Princeton University: A Brief History, 1/7/2019, Princeton University Library ... University Chapel (right) was opened in 1928 and seats nearly 2,000, making it the third largest university chapel in world. The University Chapel was built in the 1920s, but its history actually begins with the birth of the university itself. It has also been a bridge between town and gown, and between the several academic communities of Princeton. Milliner, "The Princeton University Chapel", p. 5. In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, the University Chapel is dedicated, a professor spirits a Chinese dissident to safety, and more. Extraordinarily beautiful is the Princeton Museum of Art. Milliner, "The Princeton University Chapel", p. 6. This chapel was destroyed by fire during house party weekend in 1920, and, for several years, worship services were held in Alexander Hall, the place where Professor Woodrow Wilson had delivered his address “Princeton in the Nation’s Service.”. The Deans are also joined by an array of nationally known guest preachers throughout the year and Princeton University students act as Chapel Deacons, assisting the Deans in leading the weekly worship. However, by the end of the Civil War a new chapel was needed because the number of undergraduates had doubled. This is true at Opening Exercises, Baccalaureate, and annual memorial services for alumni and staff of the University. [43][44] The pews in the nave are constructed from wood originally intended for Civil War gun carriages; over 100 carvers spent more than a year producing the intricate carvings. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered a sermon there in 1960. Pamphlet. Princeton's religious heritage is exemplified in the imposing and elegant University Chapel, the third largest college chapel in the world. The configuration and its proportions are typical of English churches, but the nave's vaulted ceiling and the colonnettes supporting it recall French churches. "[51], An oak made pulpit stands in front of the choir facing the nave. History One of the great religious edifices in the United States It is in the Chapel that the University comes together as a community. 2000s; 1900s; 1800s; 1700s; 1600s; 2018. [32] Cram shared credit for the chapel's quality with Ardolino in particular, saying his stone carving was "the best of its kind. The fire forced the trustees and president to give immediate attention to the issue of constructing a new chapel which would permit the University to maintain its religious heritage, but in a manner that recognized its public mission in an increasingly multicultural society. Marquand Chapel", "Ralph Adams Cram: The man, his work, and his legacy. )[37] A sculptor who worked on the chapel during its construction placed small carvings of his face and Cram's at the bottoms of crockets flanking the main entrance; Cram is identifiable by his glasses. [43] Images of figures connected to music are carved into the front (west), where the choir would sit, and images of scholars are carved into the back (east), where faculty would sit. [17] The arches of the crossing were designed to support the addition of a central tower,[25] but this option has not been exercised: in Bush and Kemeny's words, "Cram felt that Princeton already had enough towers. The altar and the choir stalls were built and carved by Irving and Casson, A. H. Davenport Company, in Sherwood Forest oak;[49] Cram speculated that the wood may have dated from the time of Robin Hood. Chapel History. Measured on the exterior, it is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high. Stillwell knew the building from its planning stages through its construction, dedication, and long use. A nondenominational chapel, it hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services and daily Catholic Masses. [35], The exterior iconography includes two notable whimsical elements. [68] Friend was known for delivering popular lectures on Job, and Milliner speculates that Friend had these windows included to address the problem of evil. Princeton University Chapel | Closed due to COVID-19 The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia. This is true at Opening Exercises, Baccalaureate, and annual memorial services for alumni and staff of the University. [87], The Office of Religious Life calls the chapel the third-largest university chapel in the world. Thomas Trotter gave the re-opening recital on the restored organ in 1992. "[2] Kessler calls the stained glass "a summa of the heritage of Christianity up to the early twentieth century. May 30, 1928—The University Chapel, which replaces the destroyed Marquand Chapel, is dedicated in a Sunday morning service. Stillwell describes the iconography around the Blessed Sacrament Chapel but makes no mention of it per se. The iconography was planned by Albert M. Friend, a faculty member in Princeton's Department of Art and Archaeology, with the goal of portraying, in one scholar's words, a "synthesis between Christian faith and modern thought."[2]. Princeton University Chapel: A piece of History - See 161 traveler reviews, 105 candid photos, and great deals for Princeton, NJ, at Tripadvisor. [6] Hibben led the dedication ceremony on May 31 of that year, in an elaborate ceremony covered by TIME.[12][13]. Milliner ("The Princeton University Chapel", p. 5), identifies one of these, the Belgian cardinal. [34], The tympanum above the west entrance depicts Jesus as described in the Book of Revelation, together with the four beasts and other relevant iconography. [31], Each of the three narthex entrances sits below a tympanum. It originated in the north of France, probably in the mid-1500s. It also hosts several annual special events, such as baccalaureate services and commencements. The belltower of the Basilica of the Sacred Heart at the University of Notre Dame, the tower of the Duke University Chapel, the tower of the University of Chicago's Rockefeller Chapel, and the campanile of Valparaiso University's Chapel of the Resurrection are all taller than Princeton's chapel, which does not have a tower or other appendages. The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. At its founding in 1746, Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) was first located in the parsonage of the Presbyterian Church of Elizabeth; when the College moved to Princeton, New Jersey in 1756, the chapel was located in Nassau Hall. [29] Beneath the figure of Christ is Princeton University's shield, illustrating the university's motto, Dei sub numine viget ("Under the power of God she flourishes"). She taught at Duke University for twenty years before coming to Princeton. Cram sought to build a crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed on the Princeton campus. 5-6. "[79] Though the university was once closely associated with the Presbyterian Church, it has never been affiliated with any religious denomination. in American Culture from Northwestern University and a Ph.D. in History from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. A downspout on the east wall features a relief of a bulldog head; a decades-old[36] myth relates that Cram placed it there to recognize Yale University, whose mascot is the bulldog. [2], The chapel's iconography pays tribute in places to the other Abrahamic religions. Its size and design evoke a small cathedral of the English Middle Ages. The University has been led by 20 presidents, spanning colonial times to the 21st century. [25] Most of the interior is limestone, but the aisles and the central area of the choir are Aquia Creek sandstone. [6] Albert M. Friend, a faculty member in Princeton's Department of Art and Archaeology, played a central role in planning the iconography. Honoring the alumni, student and members of the Princeton University faculty and staff whose deaths were recorded by the University during the previous calendar year, the Service of Remembrance was first held in 1919 in the University's Marquand Chapel before it burned down in 1920. [6] The construction received considerable media attention,[11] as it promised to be the largest university chapel in the United States and the second largest in the world after King's College Chapel, Cambridge. Princeton Borough The massive Collegiate-Gothic chapel, one of the finest buildings on the Princeton campus, was completed in 1928. When the chapel was built, the rest of the structure above the grade level was masonry, and the only metal reinforcement was some structural steel in the framing of the roof. It was built between 1925 and 1928 with donations from alumni and friends to replace the Marquand Chapel, which had been destroyed by fire. [78], The Office of Religious Life calls the chapel "the home of regular religious services for many of the university's faith groups, including the 264-year-old ecumenical Christian worshiping community [...] that founded Princeton in 1746. Abraham himself is depicted in a stained glass window on the north side of the nave, together with a Star of David, a Christian cross, and a star and crescent. "[33] Ardolino is credited as executing all of the building's stone carving. [2][9], The plans for the new chapel were made public in 1921. In several places the chapel's iconography includes images of figures associated with Princeton University: The chapel operates within university's Office of Religious Life. Goodhue’s most arresting building is his… The north windows depict Biblical figures and scenes,[59] while the south windows contain images associated with human knowledge. Henry Gurdon Marquand, a founder of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, was the principal donor for the Marquand Chapel, which was built in 1881. When completed in 1928 at a cost of more than two million dollars, this imposing college chapel, capable of seating two thousand, was second in size only to the chapel at King’s College, Cambridge University. Harvey S. Firestone Library (background) Image: NewJerseyAlmanac.com . [55][56], The chapel's iconography consists of over 10,000 square feet (930 m2) of stained glass[57] as well as stonework and wood carvings. Latin: Universitas Princetoniensis: Former names. Completed in 1928, it is the third largest university chapel in the world. The chapel underwent a two-year, $10 million restoration between 2000 and 2002. [80] In keeping with this tradition, the chapel hosts ecumenical Christian services each Sunday. The Princeton University Chapel is the religious and ceremonial center for the University. This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 23:27. [42] The other door leaving the Blessed Sacrament Chapel is topped by carvings of shields representing three medieval universities, Oxford, Paris, and Salamanca, and flanked by carvings representing the seven liberal arts (the Trivium and the Quadrivium) and the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. Now with new color photos throughout from photographer Noel Valero, "The Chapel of Princeton University" traces the history of the chapel and describes its architecture, sculpture, woodwork, and furnishings. [25] During the 2000-02 restoration, some pinnacles were reset with stainless steel anchors. [8] Among those who contributed to the design of stained glass windows were Charles Connick, Henry Lee Willet (of the studio that would become Willet Hauser), and Philadelphia-based stained glass artist Nicola d'Ascenzo. The Chapel of St. Peter and St. Paul. [16], On the western end of the chapel is the narthex, which has entrances on the north, west, and south walls. However, by the end of the Civil War a new chapel was needed because the number of undergraduates had doubled. It changed hands several times before Hibben obtained it for the chapel. The word 'chapel' conjures up the image of a small space for quiet reflection and prayer. [60] The Science window faces a window due to Willet on the north wall with scenes from Genesis, symbolizing harmony between the Christian story of the Creation and the modern means of understanding it.[2]. Behind the altar are carved images of eight religious figures: four Catholic saints to the north, and four leaders of Protestantism to the south. [40] Another inscription, from Psalm 100, refers to Westminster Choir College, which holds its commencement ceremonies in the chapel. [43], Large stained glass windows due to Connick[66] in the walls of the choir retell four "Christian epics": the Divine Comedy and Le Morte d'Arthur on the north wall and Paradise Lost and Pilgrim's Progress on the south wall. Our Chapels. The service is open not only to the entire Princeton University community but to townspeople and visitors to Princeton as well, who are most-warmly welcomed. [77] It is overseen by the Dean of the Chapel. [39], Three doorways lead from the narthex into the nave,[39] which is 74 feet (23 m) high[25] and named for Hibben. [12] Nearby is the Mather Sundial, a replica of the Turnbull Sundial in the courtyard of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. [29] Cram resigned as Princeton's supervising architect over the inclusion of the arch, which he disliked;[30] nonetheless, he participated in the chapel's 1928 dedication ceremony. History of the Service of Remembrance. The only university chapel of its size at the time it was built was King's College Chapel at the University of Cambridge. At its founding in 1746, Princeton University, then named the College of New Jersey, was located in the parsonage of the Presbyterian Church of Elizabeth, and soon afterwards moved to a sister church in Newark. [6] The building's southeast corner houses a vestry. Princeton University built the chapel to replace the Marquand Chapel, which stood between where the present chapel and McCosh Hall stand until it burned to the ground in 1920. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township. [29], Measured in the interior, the chapel is 249 feet (76 m) long, 93.5 feet (28 m) wide at its transepts, and 78.5 feet (24 m) high at the crossing. [24] Stillwell cites Exeter Cathedral and the Octagon tower of Ely Cathedral as precedents for the architectural detail, but notes that the Princeton chapel's detail nonetheless differs significantly from these. It is a strikingly beautiful building with stained glass windows. [18] At the time, two experts working on the stained glass restoration called it the largest such project that had ever been undertaken in the United States; too large for a single studio, it was divided among studios in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and New York. Dr. Alison L. Boden is Dean of Religious Life and of the Chapel at Princeton University, a position she has held since August 2007. Its magnificent Mander-Skinner organ, which was completely renovated in 1991, provides excellent accompaniment for the superb sixty-voice choir and for other concerts and occasions, including the several ceremonial, non-denominational events that the University holds here each year. Chapel Choir. The Princeton University chapel is central to the two great ceremonies in a Princetonian’s life cycle: Pre-rade and commencement. The model for the tympanum above the main, west entrance was designed and sculpted in clay by John Angel and stone carved by Edward Ardolino. XII", "A Princeton Companion: Chapel, The University", "Keeping the faith: When Martin Luther King Jr. spoke in the Chapel 50 years ago", "Features: Chapel gets facelift and new dean", "Restoration secures chapel at Ivy League campus", "Making 10,000 miles of stained glass gleam", "Evergreen beauty of campus gardens thrives year round", "A Princeton Companion: Mather Sundial, The", "Some Architectural and Spiritual Aspects of the Chapel", "Interesting Details of the Chapel Stone Carving (photo caption)", "Letters to the editor: Tales of Orange Key", "Veterans Day event includes flag rededication", "Connick Windows in Princeton, New Jersey 2011", "A Princeton Companion: Stevenson, Adlai Ewing", "Westminster Choir College commencement information", "A Princeton Companion: Baccalaureate Address, The", "The Princeton University chapels: an architectural and religious history", The Aquinas Institute: Catholic Campus Ministry at Princeton University, official website, School of Engineering and Applied Science, School of Public and International Affairs, Julis-Rabinowitz Center for Public Policy and Finance, Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination, Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies, 1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game, Witherspoon Street School for Colored Children, Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science, Princeton Community Japanese Language School, National Register of Historic Places listings in Mercer County, New Jersey, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Princeton_University_Chapel&oldid=1001496449, University and college chapels in the United States, Historic district contributing properties in Mercer County, New Jersey, Short description is different from Wikidata, Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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