pearl river delta population growth

pearl river delta population growth

India's Urban Population Growth Is Mostly Driven By Migration India Has Been Urbanizing Rapidly In The Period Between 2000 And 2020 India Has A Primate Urban System Indian Cities Have Weak Municipal Governments Which Province Is The Major Destination For Migrants In China? 29–33 Statistical data were used to test and validate these findings. Gender Dimensions of the Relationship between Population and Land Use in the Indian States of Kerala and Haryana, 9. Meanwhile, the portion of farmland devoted to grain crops in four counties of Guangdong Province fell from 1978 to 1988 ( Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. The explosive growth the Pearl River Delta has upended the regional balance of power. 15: Multiple regression analysis is performed to explore the determinants of economic resilience in the PRD. Findings and Observations of the Tri-Academy Project, 7. According to the latest report from the United Nations (UN), the global population in 2018 was 7.6 billion and the urban population was 4.2 billion. The effect of urbanization and climate change on the mosquito population in the Pearl River Delta … ~ enlarge ~ They include construction of the 31-mile (50 km) Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge linking Hong Kong, Macau and the Pearl River Delta. Rise of manufacturing and service sectors Natural population growth and high fertility rates Reclassification of rural towns as municipalities Rural to urban migration Figure. These policies had large impacts on land use in Pearl River Delta—among them, a reduction in agricultural land. Finding 6: Since the early 1980s, environmental quality has deteriorated in many parts of the Pearl River Delta, particularly in some townships. The Pearl River Delta's urban growth in 1973 and 2003. Population and Economics (in Chinese) The first is the proportion of population living within the boundaries of cities and towns. Table 9-2). GDP growth of the Pearl River Delta in mainland China 2009-2019 Published by C. Textor , Oct 21, 2020 At the same time, there was significant growth in smaller urban areas. The demand for labor exceeded local supply, and the new migrants required further and more extensive conversion of land for housing. SOURCES: Urban/built-up: data for 1973 and 1995 are from Landsat images; data for 1982 and 1990 are from field surveys. All these steps have been effective at curbing pollution in the Zhuhai municipality. Stimulated by those favorable policies, township enterprises developed rapidly in the Pearl River Delta, and today they account for a large percentage of the total economic growth ( NOTE: According to China's land classification system, garden land is planted in perennial crops such as orchard crops and tea; farmland is used to produce grain, vegetables, and cash crops; and forestland is devoted to cultivated and natural forests. For example, the per capita floor space in Guangzhou City remained constant from 1965 to 1980, at only 3–4 square meters. But the introduction of stringent regulations led to a decline in the emissions from these enterprises after 1980 and in turn to a decline in soil acidification ( Zhuhai, however, is one of the fastest-growing municipalities, and its floating population is rising rapidly. ~ enlarge ~ The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone accounted for 19.9 percent of GDP and 38.9 percent of total trade in 2005. Pearl River Delta: China’s Biggest Economic Hub. Preferential policies in the SEZs included a number of features designed to attract foreign investment, such as a 15 percent tax rate, tax holidays of up to five years, and the ability to repatriate corporate profits and to repatriate capital investments after a contracted period. 1994. The Delta region owes its rapid population growth mainly to massive in-migration (see the net migration rates for 1980–1994 in Some industries—particularly iron ore, pig iron, raw coal, calcium sulfate ore, phosphate fertilizer, cement, and calcium sulfate—produce considerable quantities of solid and liquid waste. The changing patterns of local food consumption mask two key factors associated with the shifts in crop production. But by 1995 per capita floor space was about three times that of the 1960s and 1970s ( Recognizing the importance of these linkages can be a significant step toward more effective environmental management. The Pearl River Delta is an extended metropolitan region of nearly 50 million people, encouraged by the Chinese government as an engine of economic growth and … Industries were built in response to market demands. Today, the Pearl River Delta's GDP clocks in at over $1.2 trillion, ahead of countries like Mexico and Indonesia, making it the 15th largest economy in the world. In the meantime, the proportion of urban/built-up land increased from 2.4 percent in 1973 to 15.7 percent in 1995. For example, in the urban areas of Guangzhou City per capita consumption of vegetables decreased, but the amount of farmland devoted to vegetable crops increased substantially in the suburbs because large portions of the crops were used to feed pigs, ducks, chickens, milk goats, milk cows, and many other animals. the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, the urban population of Shenzhen has grown from 60,000 in 1980 to 880,000 in 1990, 6.07 million in 2000, and 9.83 million in 2010 (Fig. The specific region examined in this chapter is in the central part of the Pearl River Delta, which covers 17,219 square kilometers. 1988. Generally, soil quality was improved because the garden land received higher inputs of farmyard manure and more intensive management than the cropland. Beijing: China Population Press; Statistical Yearbooks for Shenzhen and Zhuhai. ~ enlarge ~ ~ enlarge ~ [4], Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, National Development and Reform Commission, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, http://www.pacificshipper.com/news/article.asp?sid=33272<ype=transpacific, Economic profile for the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, Grasping the large, letting go of the small, China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, State Administration for Industry and Commerce, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement, Mainland and Macau Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pearl_River_Delta_Economic_Zone&oldid=999246980, Articles needing additional references from January 2008, All articles needing additional references, Articles with a promotional tone from December 2009, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 05:56. Finally, several special field surveys on land quality have been conducted since the 1960s. Figure 2.Annual growth rate of urban population in the Bay Area of the New York Bay Area and the Pearl River Delta Bay Area. The soils in the case study area can be divided into 16 groups according to their location and texture. The 2008-20 plan, released by China's National Development and Reform Commission, is designed to boost the pan-Pearl River Delta as a "center of advanced manufacturing and modern service industries", and as a "center for international shipping, logistics, trade, conferences and exhibitions and tourism". The explosive growth the Pearl River Delta has upended the regional balance of power. The National Soil Survey of China, carried out during 1981–1983, and the field survey of 1996 provided detailed information on land quality at scales of 1:10,000 and 1:400,000. In addition, paper manufacturing poses one of the greatest pollution threats, and wooden furniture manufacturing results in significant loss of local forests. It is responsible for 26.8% of the country’s exports, making it third in trade after the United States and Germany, according to the Yearbook. Fueled by its red hot economy, the Pearl River Delta region has grown from a patchwork of cities into the PRD megalopolis, one of the fastest growing and largest urban area in the world. Many industries, however, are reluctant to allocate financial resources toward improving the environment. They also provided demographic data on literacy (by sex) and social and economic factors such as gross domestic product (GDP), per capita GDP, farmer income, and total consumption expenses. Pearl River Delta Beijing mega region Hongkong-Macau mega region Yangtze River Delta What is the main driver for urbanization in China? Although it covers only 1% of China’s territory and makes up 4.3% of its population, the Pearl River Delta is the biggest economic hub in the country. The censuses included many categories of population variables, such as urban population, rural population, family size, fertility rate, infant mortality, life expectancy, rural to urban migration, and literacy. : . This legislation not only strictly defines what is forbidden in order to prevent pollution, but also explicitly states what must be done to protect the environment—for example, the standards that must be met for drinking water, Industrial + agricultural prodn., average 1990–1995, Residents' bank balances, average 1990–1995, Annual growth rate of permanent residents, 1980–1995 (percent), Annual growth rate of total population, 1986–1995 (percent), Decrease in farmland per capita, 1986–1995 (percent), Wastewater per capita, average 1990–1994 (tonnes), Air emissions per capita, average 1990–1994 (cubic meters), Waste residue per capita, average 1990–1994 (tonnes), Index of seawater pollution at junction of river and sea, average 1991–1995. At the close of the 20th century, Hong Kong was the undisputed economic powerhouse of the region. SOURCE: 1% Sampling Census of 1995 in Guangdong. Ma Xia. It has been the most economically dynamic region of the Chinese Mainland since the launch of China's reform program in 1979. An important indicator of technological input is the gross power consumption of the machinery used in agricultural production such as tractors and pumps. Thus a large proportion of vegetable production was not consumed by local people, but rather sold to other areas. The area experiences heavy rainfall during the monsoon months between April and September with annual rainfall of about 1,700 millimeters an… 1989. SOURCES: The data for 1973 are from Landsat MMS and for 1995 from TM images; the 1982 data are from a field survey. The flexible spatial mobility policy allowed people to seek the economic opportunities available in the Pearl River Delta region. Four times as many, the population growth of the entire Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration has reached four times that of the New York Bay area. SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. In the 1980s, increases in agricultural productivity, accompanied by the coming of age of the population surge of the 1960s, resulted in an influx of larger numbers of young surplus agricultural laborers into the Pearl River Delta. Farming thus still played a dominant role. ~ enlarge ~ Job opportunities were available for some, but those with low education and skill levels in a time of rapid economic development found it difficult to find work. Section 2: An overview of the Pearl River Delta 7 2.1 The Pearl River & delta 8 2.2 Population 10 2.3 Economic growth & urbanisation 12 2.4 Freshwater resources and shortages 16 2.5 Freshwater biodiversity 17 2.6 Conservation & water management 18 Section 3: Threats & conservation initiatives to freshwater biodiversity 28 FIGURE 9-11 Per capita open space and parkland, Guangzhou City, 1990–1995. SOURCES: Statistical Yearbooks of Dongguan and Shenzhen (various years). In 2005, the wealthiest metropolises were still led by the thriving urban agglomerations of the leading advanced economies in North America, Western Europe and Japan; that is, Tokyo, New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Paris and London. SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. The difference between a member of the floating population and a migrant is that the member of the floating population does not change his or her household registration and the migrant does. FIGURE 9-11 Per capita open space and parkland, Guangzhou City, 1990–1995. Qin Mingzhou. These changes have been characterized by the conversion of agricultural land into nonagricultural land and a trend toward more intensified use of land in both rural and urban areas. Table 9-9). SOURCES: Statistical Yearbooks of Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Zhuhai. By contrast, the population of Guangzhou municipality increased by less than twofold, from 3.9 million to 6.3 million. Areas of greater autonomy included finance and fiscal matters, foreign trade and investment, commerce and distribution, allocation of materials and resources, labor, and prices. In 1978 per capita grain consumption in urban areas of Ghangdong Province was 176 kilograms, falling to 88 kilograms by 1995 (see One government housing reform policy allowed diversification of housing construction. Population and Development Review This paper estimates econometric models of the socioeconomic drivers of land use change in the Pearl River Delta, China. During that period, the average real rate of GDP growth in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone exceeded 16 percent, well above the People's Republic of China national figure of 9.8 percent. . You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions, Guangdong Province, and China, 1960–1991. 47-102. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. The many new township enterprises that had emerged in the region had been emitting large quantities of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the air, acidifying the soil. In this study, we introduce the concept of economic resilience to analyse urban growth and shrinkage in the context of a rapidly-urbanising region. FIGURE 9-8 Unit area grain yield, Dongguan and Shenzhen, 1949–1996. Images by Nasa. 340 cities (40.4%) from upper-middle-income countries (e.g. . Today’s data visualization comes to us from Reddit user /r/mythicquale and it shows the population growth of every country using data and projections from the United Nations population division.. Population, Consumption, and Land Use in the Jitai Basin Region, Jiangxi Province, Population, Consumption, and Land Use in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou Branch of Popular Science Press of China, Environment Science and Technology Press of China, Postdoctoral report, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Growing Populations, Changing Landscapes: Studies from India, China, and the United States, Part I. NOTE: Total population includes only persons registered in the Pearl River Delta and excludes the floating population registered in other places. Assessment and District Division of Soil Resource Utilization of Agriculture in Pearl River Delta. Population and Land Use in India, China, and the United States: Context, Observations, and Findings, 1. In. Thus the proportion of treated industrial emissions increased from 50 percent in 1986 to 87.2 percent in 1995 in Guangdong Province as a whole, and from 47 percent to about 93.1 percent in the Delta area over the same period. Under the chemical fertilizer regime, the lack of soil organic matter in the soil prohibited the restoration of soil fertility and soil quality generally degraded. In 2018, cities in the highest quarter of greenness range accommodated only 12% of the total city population; about 69% of the total population lived in areas with a lower greenness. With annual gross domestic product growth of 13.45 percent over three decades since 1978, it is 3.5 percentage points higher than the national average. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. By examining six sites ranging from agricultural to intensely urban to areas in transition, the multinational study panel asks how population growth and consumption directly cause land-use change, and explore the general nature of the forces driving the transformations. In the Delta area it mainly reflects rice production. FIGURE 9-7 Farmland and net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. In 1996 township industries absorbed 1.1 million working people. Figure 9-3). a factor greater than four from 1980 to 1995 in much of the Delta area ( These zones, which operate under an entirely different economic premise than that of the mainland, emphasize exports and are intended to serve as an attractive environment for foreign direct investment through favorable tax incentives. Rapid economic and population growth have led to serious environmental problems in the Delta region—among other things, high levels of air pollution and large quantities of wastewater and industrial waste residue. FIGURE 9-3 Crude birth rate, China, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen City, and Zhuhai City, 1979–1994. Although it covers only 1% of China’s territory and makes up 4.3% of its population, the Pearl River Delta is the biggest economic hub in the country. As one of the first four special economic zones designated by the central government, Zhuhai has since August 1980 enjoyed special policies for stimulating economic growth. FIGURE 9-8 Unit area grain yield, Dongguan and Shenzhen, 1949–1996. In the 1990s this population was estimated to be 100 million a year. FIGURE 9-12 Grain crop areas, Huadu, Conghua, Zengcheng, and Panyu counties, 1978–1988. The world has experienced dramatic urbanization in recent decades. tied to declines in grassland, because most of the grassland, gardens, and forests are located on mountain slopes and hillsides. . The Pearl River Delta (PRD), one of the most representative areas of rapid urbanization in China, is characterized by export-oriented economy and “exo-urbanization.” Induced by the financial crisis of 2008, new spatial symptoms related to urban shrinkage, such as factory collapses, job losses, and vacant dwellings, were observed in this area. Finding 5: The urbanization policy adopted in the Pearl River Delta alleviated to some extent the population pressures on urban areas by encouraging the rapid development of small towns so they could absorb many of the surplus rural laborers who otherwise would have settled in the larger urban centers. ~ enlarge ~ The data used. Various economic reform policies since 1978—including the establishment of special economic zones, a favorable investment environment, and favorable regulations—have fostered the emergence and growth of the region's manufacturing base and export-oriented economy. Urbanization also is occurring at a rapid pace, but in China it is difficult to measure because of the ambiguous definition of the term and frequent changes in the stated boundaries of urban areas (Ma Xia, 1988; Zeng Yi and Vaupel, 1989). Soils with a cultivation history of over 100 years, however, tended to receive higher inputs of organic matter and more management than did soils with a shorter cultivation history. From 1960 to 1970 all three areas shown in 1988 FIGURE 9-2 Total population, Pearl River Delta, 1970–1994. Tang Yonglun. The Pearl River Delta region has a very different pattern of growth compared to other fast-growing cities in China. At the same time, there was significant growth in smaller urban areas. In recent years, the development environment for indigenous private-owned enterprises has improved dramatically in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone and local firms are now playing an ever-growing role in the region's economy. By 2050, the global population is expected to soar to 9.7 billion, with 68% of the population living in urban areas. FIGURE 9-5 Urban/built-up areas and farmland, Pearl River Delta, 1960–1995. The following year, however, the landscape began to change. pp. Table 9-4). The construction of 1,864 miles (3,000 km) of highways in the region was to be completed by 2012, and rail expansions of 683 miles (1,099 km) by 2012 and 1,367 miles (2,200 km) by 2020. Amount and quality changes in the process of red soil resource development in South China. GDP growth of the Pearl River Delta in mainland China 2009-2019 Published by C. Textor , Oct 21, 2020 Table 9-10 compares economic, population, farmland, and environmental pollution indicators for Zhuhai with those for the other five municipalities in the Delta area. Since 1978, almost 30% of all foreign investment in China was in the PRD.

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