artificial lighting strategies

artificial lighting strategies

0000064698 00000 n 0000003930 00000 n Biochemical composition and energy value of the microalgal biomass in different photoperiods. Blending has been extensively used and is considered a good and feasible method to improve the biodiesel quality [30, 37–39]. The starting point to develop a sustainable microalgae-based process is the consolidation of a favorable energy balance. Artificial lights are available in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, colors of light emitted, and levels of brightness. In this sense, Fig. The experiments were conducted in bioreactors operating in continuous mode, which after the residence time of batch culture (Table 1), a feed synthetic BG11 medium was added to the bioreactor at dilution rates showed at Table 1. 0000110702 00000 n It was also observed that the photoperiod of 24 times per day had biomass productivity 35.8% higher than experiments with constant illumination. In this sense, Fig. 0000008276 00000 n This study is done using DIAlux Light Wizard simulation software .The study conducted in United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) proved that LED lamps are energy efficient than other lamps , .Hence in the DIALux simulation, LED lamp ENDO GXLX7009W with a power rating of 125 W luminous flux of 6279 lumens is … Daylighting optimizes natural sunlight entry into a building to minimize the need for artificial lighting. Figure 1a and b shows the weights (variables) and scores (treatments), respectively, from the two major principal components. Conversely, Table 4 showed that all conditions tested were lower than that of international standards established for kinematic viscosity. The growth of microalgal culture depends on various abiotic factors, such as temperature, level of nutrients, and available light. Methyl esters of fatty acids, known as biodiesel, are non-toxic, biodegradable, and an excellent alternative to fossil diesel, since the combustion properties of this biofuel are similar to those of petroleum-based diesel [2]. In this sense, Table 5 shows the energy balance of microalgae culture in different light regimes. 0000174758 00000 n Artificial lighting design makes the most of its advances in lamp characteristics: CRI, LPW, LLF, and lamp life of common sources are continually improving. There are probably those times where you have felt that you just cannot escape fluorescent lightingfrom the office or the classroom to the neighborhood grocery store, its prevalence can be problematic, especially for somebody who is already sensitive. 3b shows that the light regimes clustered at the left lower quadrant are the conditions with the best results in terms of single-cell oil production. The international standards requires a minimum CN of 45 (ANP 255), 47 (ASTM D6751), or 51 (EN14214). The Best Lighting Design Strategies for Office Spaces. Jacob-Lopes and coworkers [8] also associate the low cell growth under conditions with long-term in the dark to the limited carbon source for cell growth. The Fig. trailer Daylighting is a building design strategy to use light from sun. <]>> The kinematic viscosity of biodiesel is another significant fuel property. RELATED ARTICLES. The Table 4 demonstrated that except for the parameters cetane number and viscosity, all the photoperiods tested comply with the limits established by the international standards. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. In comparison, the photoperiod of 18:6 showed a predominantly saturated profile (53.37%), followed by polyunsaturated FAs (28.13%). 0000006157 00000 n "A large, even over-scale ceiling fixture can add illumination and drama, and also trick the eye into thinking the space is much larger than it actually is," say interior designer and Lamps Plus trends producer Michael Murphy.. That doesn't mean you should totally nix all other lighting sources, though. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, Maroneze MM, Siqueira SF, Vendruscolo RG, Wagner R, de Menezes CR, Zepka LQ, Jacob-Lopes E (2016) The role of photoperiods on photobioreactors–a potential strategy to reduce costs. 0000099654 00000 n 0000099712 00000 n Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings. Understanding light in photography depends on where the photographer places the light source, be it natural or artificial. This explanation was confirmed by the light regimes of 24:0 h, 22:2 h, 20:4 h, 1 t/d, 8 t/d, 12 t/d, and 48 t/d, which showed the highest PUFAs values and consequently lower CN values (below the values established by the highest international standards). In terms of artificial lighting, ambient light is best achieved with ceiling fixtures (like flush mount ceiling lights, chandeliers, pendant lights, etc.) However, most of the industrial processes in operation do not attend these requirements, boosting their optimization to achieve these parameters. The experimental conditions were the following: initial cell concentration of 100 mg/L, isothermal reactor operating at a temperature of 26 °C, photon flux density of 150 µmol m−2 s−1, and continuous aeration of 1VVM (volume of air per volume of culture per minute) with the injection of air enriched with 15% carbon dioxide. [22] showed values of the 16.3 mg/L h. Besides, similar results were evidenced in cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli by Jacob-Lopes [8]. 0000143852 00000 n As the parameters NER and NEB are mainly based on biomass productivity, they were clustered together on the top left-hand of the plot. 2012).Here, we focus on street lighting because of its universal use and potential for ecological impacts (Gaston et al. 0000040487 00000 n %PDF-1.6 %���� Daylighting strategies and architectural design strategies are inseparable. Furthermore, the light regime in which microalgal cultures are submitted is considered a determining factor in the cell productivity and chemical composition of biomass [10]. Natural Lighting Strategies: 0000007462 00000 n Presence of natural light in an occupied space brings a sense of wellbeing, increases awareness of one’s surrounding and also increases energy saving potential with reduced dependence on artificial light. As unsaturations are prone to oxidation, the polyunsaturated FAs are firstly degraded [28, 29]. European Standard, Pilsen, ANP-National Petroleum Agency (2003) ANP 255 - Provisional Brazilian Biodiesel Standard. Eduardo Jacob-Lopes. Biomass data were used to calculate the biomass productivity [PX = Xmax∙µmax, mg/L h] and lipid productivity [PL = PX∙LC, mg/L h], where Xmax is the maximum biomass concentration (mg/L), µmax is the maximum specific growth rate (h−1) and LC is lipid content of the biomass (%). Why This Multifamily Building Pursued Passive House Certification. This because the microalgae are unable to use inorganic carbon sources in the absence of light, and the organic carbon concentrations in the culture medium were insufficient for the energy maintenance of respiratory metabolism. And doing this affects the final image more than anything. Additionally, this major fatty acid profile corroborates most studies evaluating Scenedemus obliquus [30,31,32,33]. Malays Appl Biol 42:41–49, Mandotra SK, Kumar P, Suseela MR, Nayaka S, Ramteke PW (2016) Evaluation of fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of microalga Scenedesmus abundans under the influence of phosphorus, pH and light intensities. Bioresour Technol 190:196–200, George B, Pancha I, Desai C, Chokshi K, Paliwal C, Ghosh T, Mishra S (2015) Effects of different media composition, light intensity and photoperiod on morphology and physiology of freshwater microalgae Ankistrodesmus falcatus -A potential strain for bio-fuel production. Bioresour Technol 201:222–229, Mekuto L, Musingadi, D (2019) A dataset representing the impact of cyanide on the fatty acid profile of Scenedesmus obliquus. 0000142201 00000 n Planning for daylight therefore involves integrating the perspectives and requirements of various specialities and professionals. Starting at 100% brightness for all fixtures, the team gradually dropped the light levels by 5-10% every few days until they reached the optimum balance. Part of Springer Nature. 0000164010 00000 n Artificial lighting systems allow extension of the greenhouse production over a period in the year and increase the yield of the greenhouse, even in favorable climate zones and periods [32]. The results shown in Table 5 indicated that the energy required to supply the artificial lighting of the photobioreactor was lower than that produced in all light conditions, except for the photoperiod of 12:12 h (light: dark) that presented a positive NEB and a NER of 0. The results showed that Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05 can store sufficient energy to sustain cell growth for continuous periods of up to 2 h in the dark, without affecting the productivities of the process. advances in lighting design allow efficient use of windows to reduce the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours without causing heating or cooling problems. Energy -efficient lighting is the use of artificial light to receive the optimal level of light for the lowest energy investment. The biomass calorific value was calculated by the Atwater System, using factors of 17 kJ/g for protein, 37 kJ/g for lipid and 17 kJ/g for total carbohydrate content [17]. The short light/dark cycles are very fast alternations between high light intensities and darkness, also called a flashing light effect. It was qualitatively observed that the photoperiod significantly influenced the fatty acid profile of single-cell oil and, consequently, the quality of the produced biodiesel. [12] evaluated the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus under the condition of 24:00 h (light: dark) operating in batch mode found lower values of biomass productivity to 6.25 mg/L h. Likewise, Vendruscolo et al. Install artificial lighting that mimics natural light. 0000005867 00000 n The single-cell oil produced by microalgae is considered as one of the most effective raw materials for third generation biodiesel production. ANP, Brasília, Ramos MJ, Fernández CM, Casas A, Rodríguez L, Pérez A (2009) Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties. 0000129684 00000 n ASTM, West Conshohocken, EN-European Standard, (2003) UNE-EN 14214 - automotive fuel - fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engine - requirements and test methods. Natural lighting has been proven to increase health and comfort levels for building occupants. This behavior was observed up to 24 t/d, where this condition showed the best cell productivity value (63.88 mg/L h), followed by 48 t/d (58.22 mg/L h). Maroneze, M.M., Deprá, M.C., Zepka, L.Q. By providing a direct link to the dynamic and perpetually evolving patterns of outdoor illumination, daylighting helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants, while reducing as much as one-third of total building energy costs. In this regard, this work aimed to identify artificial lighting strategies that balance kinetic performance, energy cost and environmental impact for microalgal biodiesel production in photobioreactors. This could be explained by the fact that lipids and fatty acids were oxidized when cells require energy in the dark during insufficient light for photosynthesis. Bioresour Technol 100:261–268, Geacai S, Iulian O, Nita I (2015) Measurement, correlation and prediction of biodiesel blends viscosity. Fluorescent Lighting and Autism. Bioresour Technol 203:357–363, Jacob-Lopes E, Scoparo CHG, Lacerda LMCF, Franco TT (2009) Effect of light cycles (night/day) on CO2 fixation and biomass production by microalgae in photobioreactors. Bioresour Technol 219:493–499, Queiroz MI, Hornes MO, Silva-Manetti AG, Jacob-Lopes E (2011) Single-cell oil production by cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cultivated heterotrophically in fish processing wastewater. The modulation of photoperiods demonstrated to be an enhanced strategy to improve the energy balance of the process, allowing the use of artificial lighting as a worthwhile alternative for microalgal biodiesel production. The light energy can be provided by the sunlight, which is the most cost-effective energy source for microalgal production. 0000112783 00000 n Proc Nat Acad Sci 116(15):7192–7197. In other words, these photoperiods are more viable for biodiesel production in quantitative terms. 2012).Different types of street light have distinct spectral signatures (Fig. The objective and scope of the application of this LCA were to evaluate the environmental footprint of the energy requirements for long term photoperiods. If you must opt for artificial lighting, choose halogen lighting (white) over incandescent light sources that have a yellowish color. Thermostats controlled the temperature. Thus, both the problem of low viscosity microalgae biodiesel and high viscosity of vegetable oils could be solved by blending. The use of artificial lighting is crucial in agriculture and gardening, particularly in indoor cultivation. SN Appl. The values for the maximum biomass (63.88 mg/L h) and lipid (18.9 mg/L h) productivities as well for the calorific value (20.4 kJ/g) were obtained at a photoperiod of 24 t/d. 0000199926 00000 n This mechanism is known as enhanced post-illumination respiration [7, 23]. The reactor was illuminated with 45 cool white LED lamps of 0.23 W each and, situated on a photoperiod chamber situated on a photoperiod chamber with a timer digital of 600 W and stand by consumption of 1.6 W. The CO2/air mixture was adjusted to achieve the desired concentration of carbon dioxide in the airstream through three rotameters that measured the flow rates of carbon dioxide, air, and the mixture of gases, respectively. Nat Sci Rep 5:14936–14946, Article  0000175862 00000 n However, it also has certain disadvantages, including day/night cycles, the influence of weather conditions, and seasonal changes. It is commonly agreed that environmental deterioration and fossil fuel depletion are becoming two worldwide issues that threaten human development [1]. A daylighting system is comprised not just of daylight apertures, such as skylights and wi… The steady-state was considered to have been established after at least 3 volume charges, with a variation of cell dry weight less than 5%. Incorporating a bold ceiling fixture will direct attention upward and open up your space. The incubation conditions used were 30 °C, the photon flux density of 30 µmol m−2 s−1 and a photoperiod of 12 h. Measurements were carried out in a bubble column photobioreactor (Tecnal, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil). This light condition has been experimentally proven to be one of the most promising light regimes in microalgal cultivation [7]. Finally, the use of photoperiods also proved to be an effective strategy to improve the energy balance and reduce the environmental impact of the microalgae biodiesel production process. 0000175722 00000 n Cur Biotechnol 5:249–254, Lelieveld J, Klingmüller K, Pozzer A, Burnett RT, Haines A, Ramanathan V (2019) Effects of fossil fuel and total anthropogenic emission removal on public health and climate. These sensors detect the presence of humans, motion, timing or occupancy and based on the sensor output, it switches the lamps ON and OFF. This may be due to lipid/glucan biosynthesis, and carbon fixation occurs during the light period. 0000112953 00000 n In order to reap all of the benefits and healing power of natural light in office spaces, you need to have a clear vision and trusted guidance. Thus, regardless of the photoperiod strategy adopted, the decision-making to replace the energy matrix with clean sources can bring immediate results to reduce environmental impacts [41]. Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brazil, Mariana Manzoni Maroneze, Mariany Costa Deprá, Leila Queiroz Zepka & Eduardo Jacob-Lopes, You can also search for this author in 0000108800 00000 n The fatty acid profile of the lipid fraction of biomass subjected to different frequencies of light/dark cycle showed dominance in saturated fatty acids (44.73–51.60%), followed by saturated ones (27.93–42.34%). 0000007408 00000 n The first PCA was performed to examine the relationship between the feedstock production parameters. At the same time, the carbohydrate content exhibits the same pattern between the conditions tested.

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